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|Publication type:||Article in scientific journal|
|Type of review:||Peer review (publication)|
|Title:||Energy autonomous wireless sensing node working at 5 Lux from a 4 cm2 solar cell|
|Authors:||Meli, Marcel Louis|
Poole, Philip John
Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos S.
|Published in:||Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications|
|Publisher / Ed. Institution:||MDPI|
|Subjects:||Energy harvesting; Energy autonomy; Solar cell; Low power; Comparator; Touch sensor; Bluetooth low energy; Low light|
|Subject (DDC):||621.3: Electrical, communications, control engineering|
|Abstract:||Harvesting energy for IoT nodes in places that are permanently poorly lit is important, as many such places exist in buildings and other locations. The need for energy-autonomous devices working in such environments has so far received little attention. This work reports the design and test results of an energy-autonomous sensor node powered solely by solar cells. The system can cold-start and run in low light conditions (in this case 20 lux and below, using white LEDs as light sources). Four solar cells of 1 cm2 each are used, yielding a total active surface of 4 cm2. The system includes a capacitive sensor that acts as a touch detector, a crystal-accurate real-time clock (RTC), and a Cortex-M3-compatible microcontroller integrating a Bluetooth Low Energy radio (BLE) and the necessary stack for communication. A capacitor of 100 μF is used as energy storage. A low-power comparator monitors the level of the energy storage and powers up the system. The combination of the RTC and touch sensor enables the MCU load to be powered up periodically or using an asynchronous user touch activity. First tests have shown that the system can perform the basic work of cold-starting, sensing, and transmitting frames at +0 dBm, at illuminances as low as 5 lux. Harvesting starts earlier, meaning that the potential for full function below 5 lux is present. The system has also been tested with other light sources. The comparator is a test chip developed for energy harvesting. Other elements are off-the-shelf components. The use of commercially available devices, the reduced number of parts, and the absence of complex storage elements enable a small node to be built in the future, for use in constantly or intermittently poorly lit places.|
|Fulltext version:||Published version|
|License (according to publishing contract):||CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International|
|Departement:||School of Engineering|
|Organisational Unit:||Institute of Embedded Systems (InES)|
|Appears in collections:||Publikationen School of Engineering|
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|2023_Meli-etal_Energy-autonomous-wireless-sensing-node_jlpea.pdf||9.8 MB||Adobe PDF|
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Meli, M. L., Favre, S., Maij, B., Stajic, S., Boebel, M., Poole, P. J., Schellenberg, M., & Kouzinopoulos, C. S. (2023). Energy autonomous wireless sensing node working at 5 Lux from a 4 cm2 solar cell. Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, 13(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea13010012
Meli, M.L. et al. (2023) ‘Energy autonomous wireless sensing node working at 5 Lux from a 4 cm2 solar cell’, Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, 13(1), p. 12. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea13010012.
M. L. Meli et al., “Energy autonomous wireless sensing node working at 5 Lux from a 4 cm2 solar cell,” Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 12, Feb. 2023, doi: 10.3390/jlpea13010012.
Meli, Marcel Louis, et al. “Energy Autonomous Wireless Sensing Node Working at 5 Lux from a 4 Cm2 Solar Cell.” Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, vol. 13, no. 1, Feb. 2023, p. 12, https://doi.org/10.3390/jlpea13010012.
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