Inadequate nutrient intake and reduced absorption of micro- and macronutrients among the aging population may result in reduced weight and immunity, as well as increased oxidative stress, associated with increased risk of chronic disease. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberries) are an excellent source of many vitamins and minerals, and contain higher levels of antioxidants (procyanidins, anthocyanins and phenolics) than most other blackberries. A wide-range of health benefits have been proposed, which need to be confirmed by further research. Aronia offers good potential for innovative developments of functional foods and ingredients. This project aims to develop a natural vitamin- and mineral-enriched drink based on Aronia melanocarpa as an alternative to “vitamin-supplements”, which are too frequently taken among elderly.
The synthesis of sub-100 nm polymeric nanoparticles in a surfactant-free form is currently very challenging due to the oil nanoemulsion instability in polar solvents and in the absence of stabilizers. Here we report for the first time the surfactant-free synthesis method of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) nanoparticles in an aqueous environment using ultrasonic radiation. This method involves emulsification of the monomers mixture in water, followed by free-radical polymerization under pulsed or continuous acoustic fields. The local energy produced in water by cavitation effects was sufficient to: (1) generate and stabilize the monomer nanoemulsion due to mechanical forces, and (2) drive the radical polymerization due to the heat generated. The average size of the final polymer nanoparticles obtained depended: (i) inversely on the monomer/water interfacial energy, emulsification power, and (ii) directly on temperature, amount of initiator and monomer solubility. The polymer nanopart...
Das Agro-Food-System ist ein System komplexer Zusammenhänge von Lebensmittelproduktion,-verarbeitung, -vermarktung, -einkauf bis hin zur Nahrungszubereitung durch Konsumenten. Der Mensch nimmt durch sein Essverhalten in vielfältiger Weise darauf Einfluss. Das Autorenteam stellt die Einflüsse anhand von Ernährungs- und Einkaufsverhalten dar und zeigt auf, was eine zukunftsfähige Ernährungsweise umfassen könnte.
In the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences, a number of research groups are involved in surface science, with different methodological approaches and a broad range of sophisticated characterization techniques. A snapshot of the current research going on in different groups from the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland (HES-SO), the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW) is given.
Reactions between deuterium labelled alkanes and H2OOH+ have been investigated by conducting gas phase reactions within the cell of an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Propane is exceptional in giving off a hydride (deuteride) thereby producing the Pr cation and two water mols., as well as demonstrating high activity for proton induced H/D exchange. The detailed mechanistic scenario has been modeled using accurate quantum chem. methods (MP2 and G3). The calcns. show that hydrogen exchange takes place via a synchronous flip-flop mechanism. Results of reactions with partially deuterated propanes demonstrate quite exceptional regioselectivity for hydride abstraction in favor of the secondary positions (2-H) compared to the primary (1-H). This observation is understood on the basis of transition state theory.
The regioselectivity for the dehydrogenation of alkanes by rhodium clusters was investigated by reacting Rhn+, n = 1-20, with the isotopically labelled alkanes ethane-1,1,1-d3 and propane-1,1,1,3,3,3-d6. For Rh+ reacting with propane a clear preference for a 1,2- over a 1,1- and 1,3-mechanism was obsd. For larger clusters, hydrogen scrambling is faster than hydrogen elimination, which essentially leads to statistical formation of the neutrals H2, HD, and D2. Isotope scrambling with D2 was also used as a structural probe for the reaction products of rhodium clusters with ethane. The intactness of the C-H bonds was demonstrated for (n > 6). The studies are completed with a detailed kinetic anal. for the reaction of Rh7+ with ethane and ethane/hydrogen and ethane/helium mixts. An over-all picture with efficient C-H bond activation and fast and reversible hydrogen rearrangements emerges on the basis of these expts. Some of the dehydrogenation reactions appear to be reversible.
Halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardants are considered as replacements for the phased-out class of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, toxicological information on new flame retardants is still limited. Based on their excellent flame retardation potential, we have selected three novel 9,10- dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) derivatives and assessed their toxicological profile using a battery of in vitro test systems in order to provide toxicological information before their large-scale production and use. PBDE-99, applied as a reference compound, exhibited distinct neuroselective cytotoxicity at concentrations ≥10 μM. 6-(2-((6-Oxidodibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinin-6-yl)amino)ethoxydibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine-6-oxide) (ETA-DOPO) and 6,6′-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))bis(dibenzo[1,2]oxaphosphinine-6-oxide) (EG-DOPO) displayed adverse effects at concentrations >10 μM in test systems reflecting the properties of human central and peripheral nervous system neur...
Detailed knowledge about the skin concentration of topically applied substances is important to understand their local pharamcological activity. In particular since in vitro models of reconstructed human epidermis are increasingly used as models for diseased skin. In general, diffusion cell experiments are perfomred to determine the diffusion flux of thest substances through either skin models or excised skin either from humans or animals. Local concentration of the test substances within the skin are then calculated applying diffusion laws and suited boundary conditions. In this study we were using a direct approach to reveal the loacl concentrations of test substances within skin using confocal Raman microscopy. This non-invasive method can also be applied in vivo and therefore we were directly comparing in vivo concentrations with those obtained from commercially available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). Hydrophilic and lipophilic test substances with log Pow from -0.07 to ...
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