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Publication type: Article in scientific journal
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Title: Well-designed medical pictograms accelerate search
Authors: Reijnen, Ester
Laasner Vogt, Lea
Fiechter, Jan P.
Kühne, Swen J.
Meister, Nadine
Venzin, Claudio
Aebersold, Raphael
et. al: No
DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103799
Published in: Applied Ergonomics
Volume(Issue): 103
Issue: 103799
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher / Ed. Institution: Elsevier
ISSN: 0003-6870
Language: English
Subjects: Medical instruction; Pharmaceutical pictogram system; Search efficiency; Human; Medication adherence; Reaction time; Education, Medical; Health literacy
Subject (DDC): 150: Psychology
Abstract: Two types of newly designed pharmaceutical pictograms (with and without context) were compared with an existing type of certified pictograms regarding their search efficiency. Each of the 30 participants had to search a total of 1'090 "fictitious" medical shelves for a certain box defined by the amount and type of medical instructions given (memory size) and presented among a variable number of other boxes (set size). The boxes contained the different types of pictograms mentioned above. Calculated factorial analyses on reaction time data, among others, showed that the two newly designed pictogram types make search more efficient compared to existing types of pictograms (i.e., flatter reaction time x set size slopes). Furthermore, regardless of the type of pictogram, this set size effect became more pronounced with larger memory sizes. Overall, the newly designed pictograms need fewer attentional resources and therefore might help to increase patient adherence.
Fulltext version: Published version
License (according to publishing contract): CC BY-NC-ND 4.0: Attribution - Non commercial - No derivatives 4.0 International
Departement: Applied Psychology
Organisational Unit: Psychological Institute (PI)
Appears in collections:Publikationen Angewandte Psychologie

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Reijnen, E., Laasner Vogt, L., Fiechter, J. P., Kühne, S. J., Meister, N., Venzin, C., & Aebersold, R. (2022). Well-designed medical pictograms accelerate search. Applied Ergonomics, 103(103799).
Reijnen, E. et al. (2022) ‘Well-designed medical pictograms accelerate search’, Applied Ergonomics, 103(103799). Available at:
E. Reijnen et al., “Well-designed medical pictograms accelerate search,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 103, no. 103799, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103799.
REIJNEN, Ester, Lea LAASNER VOGT, Jan P. FIECHTER, Swen J. KÜHNE, Nadine MEISTER, Claudio VENZIN und Raphael AEBERSOLD, 2022. Well-designed medical pictograms accelerate search. Applied Ergonomics. 2022. Bd. 103, Nr. 103799. DOI 10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103799
Reijnen, Ester, Lea Laasner Vogt, Jan P. Fiechter, Swen J. Kühne, Nadine Meister, Claudio Venzin, and Raphael Aebersold. 2022. “Well-Designed Medical Pictograms Accelerate Search.” Applied Ergonomics 103 (103799).
Reijnen, Ester, et al. “Well-Designed Medical Pictograms Accelerate Search.” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 103, no. 103799, 2022,

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