Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Publication type: Article in scientific journal
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Title: Ropiness in bread : a re-emerging spoilage phenomenon
Authors: Pacher, Nicola
Burtscher, Johanna
Johler, Sophia
Etter, Danai
Bender, Denisse
Fieseler, Lars
Domig, Konrad J.
et. al: No
DOI: 10.3390/foods11193021
Published in: Foods
Volume(Issue): 11
Issue: 19
Page(s): 3021
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher / Ed. Institution: MDPI
ISSN: 2304-8158
Language: English
Subjects: Fadenziehen; Bacillus spp.; Bread; Rope; Spoilage; Wheat
Subject (DDC): 664: Food technology
Abstract: As bread is a very important staple food, its spoilage threatens global food security. Ropy bread spoilage manifests in sticky and stringy degradation of the crumb, slime formation, discoloration, and an odor reminiscent of rotting fruit. Increasing consumer demand for preservative-free products and global warming may increase the occurrence of ropy spoilage. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, the B. cereus group, B. pumilus, B. sonorensis, Cytobacillus firmus, Niallia circulans, Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Priestia megaterium were reported to cause ropiness in bread. Process hygiene does not prevent ropy spoilage, as contamination of flour with these Bacillus species is unavoidable due to their occurrence as a part of the endophytic commensal microbiota of wheat and the formation of heat-stable endospores that are not inactivated during processing, baking, or storage. To date, the underlying mechanisms behind ropy bread spoilage remain unclear, high-throughput screening tools to identify rope-forming bacteria are missing, and only a limited number of strategies to reduce rope spoilage were described. This review provides a current overview on (i) routes of entry of Bacillus endospores into bread, (ii) bacterial species implicated in rope spoilage, (iii) factors influencing rope development, and (iv) methods used to assess bacterial rope-forming potential. Finally, we pinpoint key gaps in knowledge and related challenges, as well as future research questions.
Fulltext version: Published version
License (according to publishing contract): CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International
Departement: Life Sciences and Facility Management
Organisational Unit: Institute of Food and Beverage Innovation (ILGI)
Appears in collections:Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
2022_Pacher-etal_Ropiness-in-bread-spoilage.pdf1.11 MBAdobe PDFThumbnail
Show full item record
Pacher, N., Burtscher, J., Johler, S., Etter, D., Bender, D., Fieseler, L., & Domig, K. J. (2022). Ropiness in bread : a re-emerging spoilage phenomenon. Foods, 11(19), 3021.
Pacher, N. et al. (2022) ‘Ropiness in bread : a re-emerging spoilage phenomenon’, Foods, 11(19), p. 3021. Available at:
N. Pacher et al., “Ropiness in bread : a re-emerging spoilage phenomenon,” Foods, vol. 11, no. 19, p. 3021, 2022, doi: 10.3390/foods11193021.
PACHER, Nicola, Johanna BURTSCHER, Sophia JOHLER, Danai ETTER, Denisse BENDER, Lars FIESELER und Konrad J. DOMIG, 2022. Ropiness in bread : a re-emerging spoilage phenomenon. Foods. 2022. Bd. 11, Nr. 19, S. 3021. DOI 10.3390/foods11193021
Pacher, Nicola, Johanna Burtscher, Sophia Johler, Danai Etter, Denisse Bender, Lars Fieseler, and Konrad J. Domig. 2022. “Ropiness in Bread : A Re-Emerging Spoilage Phenomenon.” Foods 11 (19): 3021.
Pacher, Nicola, et al. “Ropiness in Bread : A Re-Emerging Spoilage Phenomenon.” Foods, vol. 11, no. 19, 2022, p. 3021,

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.