Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.21256/zhaw-3919
Title: Negative effects of psychological treatments : an exploratory factor analysis of the negative effects questionnaire for monitoring and reporting adverse and unwanted events
Authors : Rozental, Alexander
Kottorp, Anders Börje Mauritz
Boettcher, Johanna
Andersson, Gerhard
Carlbring, Per
Published in : PloS one
Volume(Issue) : 11
Issue : 6(e0157503)
Publisher / Ed. Institution : Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2016
License (according to publishing contract) : CC BY 4.0: Namensnennung 4.0 International
Type of review: Peer review (Publication)
Language : English
Subjects : Adult; Demography; Female; Human; Male; Mental disorder; Statistical factor analysis; Survey and questionnaire
Subject (DDC) : 616.89: Mental disorders, clinical psychology and psychiatry
Abstract: Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.
Departement: Gesundheit
Organisational Unit: Institute of Occupational Therapy (IER)
Publication type: Article in scientific Journal
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0157503
10.21256/zhaw-3919
ISSN: 1932-6203
URI: https://digitalcollection.zhaw.ch/handle/11475/8779
Appears in Collections:Publikationen Gesundheit

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