|Title:||Rope in bread : a critical challenge for the bakery industry|
|Authors :||Fieseler, Lars|
Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne
|Conference details:||4th MoniQA International Conference, Budapest, Hungary, 26 February - 1 March 2013|
|License (according to publishing contract) :||Licence according to publishing contract|
|Type of review:||Not specified|
|Subject (DDC) :||664: Food technology|
|Abstract:||Rope formation is a serious, but underreported food security problem in the bakery industry. Although ropiness has been recognized for many years, no effective means of prevention have yet been determined. Ropiness can occur in wheat bread, mixed grain bread or yeast-raised baked goods. It is initially characterized by an unpleasant fruity odor accompanied by a bitter taste. Subsequently the bread crumb discolors, the bread appears greasy and sticky and, when broken apart, extended threads develop which stretch out from the crumb. Ropiness is particularly prevalent in organic products and is caused by several bacterial species of the genus Bacillus (B. subtitlis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. megaterium, and B. cereus). Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria omnipresent in the environment and in various raw materials. The spores are often introduced into the dough via contaminated flour or after reuse of dried and milled bakery residues. Analysis of ca. 200 grain samples in Switzerland confirmed that virtually all samples were associated with Bacillus spores at a level of 101 to 104 spores per gram. Because spores exhibit a high heat resistance they normally survive the baking process inside the bread crumb. After cooling, spores germinate in the warm moist matrix. During subsequent storage of the bread (in particular during the summer months in tightly closed containers), the germinated vegetative cells multiply rapidly. Rope spoilage becomes visible if the bacteria multiply to 107 to 108 colony forming units per gram of crumb. A survey carried out among small and medium-sized bakeries in Switzerland confirmed that 61% of the respondents were familiar with rope spoilage and 30% thereof referred to spoilage incidents in their own bakeries. However, because of the long time for ropiness to develop, spoilage is often only detected once the product has been purchased by the consumer and consequently the bakery industry is unaware of the full extent of the problem.|
|Departement:||Life Sciences and Facility Management|
|Organisational Unit:||Institute of Food and Beverage Innovation (ILGI)|
|Publication type:||Conference Poster|
|Appears in Collections:||Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management|
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