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Publication type: Article in scientific journal
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Title: Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0
Authors: Dengler, Jürgen
Jansen, Florian
Chusova, Olha
Hüllbusch, Elisabeth
Nobis, Michael P.
Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
Axmanová, Irena
Bruun, Hans Henrik
Chytrý, Milan
Guarino, Riccardo
Karrer, Gerhard
Moeys, Karlien
Raus, Thomas
Steinbauer, Manuel J.
Tichý, Lubomir
Tyler, Torbjörn
Batsatsashvili, Ketevan
Bita-Nicolae, Claudia
Didukh, Yakiv
Diekmann, Martin
Englisch, Thorsten
Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo
Frank, Dieter
Graf, Ulrich
Hájek, Michal
Jelaska, Sven D.
Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja
Julve, Philippe
Nakhutsrishvili, George
Ozinga, Wim A.
Ruprecht, Eszter-Karolina
Šilc, Urban
Theurillat, Jean-Paul
Gillet, François
et. al: No
DOI: 10.3897/VCS.98324
Published in: Vegetation Classification and Survey
Volume(Issue): 4
Page(s): 7
Pages to: 29
Issue Date: Jan-2023
Publisher / Ed. Institution: Pensoft
ISSN: 2683-0671
Language: English
Subjects: Bioindication; Ecological indicator value; Ellenberg indicator value; Europe; Light; Moisture; Niche position; Niche width; Nitrogen; pH; Temperature; Vascular plant
Subject (DDC): 577: Ecology
580: Plants (Botany)
Abstract: Aims: To develop a consistent ecological indicator value system for Europe for five of the main plant niche dimensions: soil moisture (M), soil nitrogen (N), soil reaction (R), light (L) and temperature (T). Study area: Europe (and closely adjacent regions). Methods: We identified 31 indicator value systems for vascular plants in Europe that contained assessments on at least one of the five aforementioned niche dimensions. We rescaled the indicator values of each dimension to a continuous scale, in which 0 represents the minimum and 10 the maximum value present in Europe. Taxon names were harmonised to the Euro+Med Plantbase. For each of the five dimensions, we calculated European values for niche position and niche width by combining the values from the individual EIV systems. Using T values as an example, we externally validated our European indicator values against the median of bioclimatic conditions for global occurrence data of the taxa. Results: In total, we derived European indicator values of niche position and niche width for 14,835 taxa (14,714 for M, 13,748 for N, 14,254 for R, 14,054 for L, 14,496 for T). Relating the obtained values for temperature niche position to the bioclimatic data of species yielded a higher correlation than any of the original EIV systems (r = 0.859). The database: The newly developed Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0, together with all source systems, is available in a flexible, harmonised open access database. Conclusions: EIVE is the most comprehensive ecological indicator value system for European vascular plants to date. The uniform interval scales for niche position and niche width provide new possibilities for ecological and macroecological analyses of vegetation patterns. The developed workflow and documentation will facilitate the future release of updated and expanded versions of EIVE, which may for example include the addition of further taxonomic groups, additional niche dimensions, external validation or regionalisation.
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Fulltext version: Published version
License (according to publishing contract): CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International
Departement: Life Sciences and Facility Management
Organisational Unit: Institute of Natural Resource Sciences (IUNR)
Appears in collections:Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management

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Dengler, J., Jansen, F., Chusova, O., Hüllbusch, E., Nobis, M. P., Van Meerbeek, K., Axmanová, I., Bruun, H. H., Chytrý, M., Guarino, R., Karrer, G., Moeys, K., Raus, T., Steinbauer, M. J., Tichý, L., Tyler, T., Batsatsashvili, K., Bita-Nicolae, C., Didukh, Y., et al. (2023). Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0. Vegetation Classification and Survey, 4, 7–29.
Dengler, J. et al. (2023) ‘Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0’, Vegetation Classification and Survey, 4, pp. 7–29. Available at:
J. Dengler et al., “Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0,” Vegetation Classification and Survey, vol. 4, pp. 7–29, Jan. 2023, doi: 10.3897/VCS.98324.
DENGLER, Jürgen, Florian JANSEN, Olha CHUSOVA, Elisabeth HÜLLBUSCH, Michael P. NOBIS, Koenraad VAN MEERBEEK, Irena AXMANOVÁ, Hans Henrik BRUUN, Milan CHYTRÝ, Riccardo GUARINO, Gerhard KARRER, Karlien MOEYS, Thomas RAUS, Manuel J. STEINBAUER, Lubomir TICHÝ, Torbjörn TYLER, Ketevan BATSATSASHVILI, Claudia BITA-NICOLAE, Yakiv DIDUKH, Martin DIEKMANN, Thorsten ENGLISCH, Eduardo FERNÁNDEZ-PASCUAL, Dieter FRANK, Ulrich GRAF, Michal HÁJEK, Sven D. JELASKA, Borja JIMÉNEZ-ALFARO, Philippe JULVE, George NAKHUTSRISHVILI, Wim A. OZINGA, Eszter-Karolina RUPRECHT, Urban ŠILC, Jean-Paul THEURILLAT und François GILLET, 2023. Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0. Vegetation Classification and Survey. Januar 2023. Bd. 4, S. 7–29. DOI 10.3897/VCS.98324
Dengler, Jürgen, Florian Jansen, Olha Chusova, Elisabeth Hüllbusch, Michael P. Nobis, Koenraad Van Meerbeek, Irena Axmanová, et al. 2023. “Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0.” Vegetation Classification and Survey 4 (January): 7–29.
Dengler, Jürgen, et al. “Ecological Indicator Values for Europe (EIVE) 1.0.” Vegetation Classification and Survey, vol. 4, Jan. 2023, pp. 7–29,

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