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|Publication type:||Article in scientific journal|
|Type of review:||Peer review (publication)|
|Title:||Monitoring of cocoa post-harvest process practices on a small-farm level at five locations in Ecuador|
Freimüller Leischtfeld, Susette
Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne
|Publisher / Ed. Institution:||Elsevier|
|Subjects:||Cacao nacional; Cocoa bean fermentation; Fermentation in bags; Fermentation technique; Sensory description|
|Subject (DDC):||630: Agriculture |
664: Food technology
|Abstract:||Cocoa post-harvest practices were monitored on a small-farm scale (ca. 50 kg fresh beans) at five intermediaries from four provinces in Ecuador: (A) in Manabí, (B) and (E) in Los Ríos, (C) in Cotopaxi, (D) in Guayas. Temperature, pH (pulp, cotyledon), cell counts (yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria) were recorded daily, and cut-tests and sensory descriptive analysis evaluated end quality. An overall inconsistency and variability in processing were observed with different fermentation devices (jute/plastic bags, wooden boxes), pre-drying, turning during fermentation, fermentation duration, and different drying processes (temperatures, direct/indirect). Key parameters (maximum temperature, pH cotyledon development) revealed a significant impact of the fermentation device on the post-harvest process and, therefore, on the fermentation development. 67-74 h in jute bags without turning was sufficient to reach well-fermented cocoa beans without moldy off-flavors, whereas 133 h in plastic bags without turning resulted in 3 ± 1% moldy beans and cocoa liquor with moldy off-flavor. Drying at high temperatures (80 ± 10 °C) with direct heat contact resulted in beans roasted to burnt off-flavor. Conclusively, the whole post-harvest process was crucial for well-fermented beans without off-flavor. Plastic bags seemed unsuitable, while jute bags could be an alternative to wooden boxes.|
|Fulltext version:||Published version|
|License (according to publishing contract):||CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International|
|Departement:||Life Sciences and Facility Management|
|Organisational Unit:||Institute of Food and Beverage Innovation (ILGI)|
|Published as part of the ZHAW project:||Optimierung des Nachernteprozesses von Kakaobohnen in Ecuador|
|Appears in collections:||Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management|
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|2022_Streule-etal_Cocoa-post-harvest-process-practices-Ecuador.pdf||3.06 MB||Adobe PDF|
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Streule, S., Freimüller Leischtfeld, S., Galler, M., & Miescher Schwenninger, S. (2022). Monitoring of cocoa post-harvest process practices on a small-farm level at five locations in Ecuador. Heliyon, 8(6), e09628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09628
Streule, S. et al. (2022) ‘Monitoring of cocoa post-harvest process practices on a small-farm level at five locations in Ecuador’, Heliyon, 8(6), p. e09628. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09628.
S. Streule, S. Freimüller Leischtfeld, M. Galler, and S. Miescher Schwenninger, “Monitoring of cocoa post-harvest process practices on a small-farm level at five locations in Ecuador,” Heliyon, vol. 8, no. 6, p. e09628, Jun. 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09628.
Streule, Stefanie, et al. “Monitoring of Cocoa Post-Harvest Process Practices on a Small-Farm Level at Five Locations in Ecuador.” Heliyon, vol. 8, no. 6, June 2022, p. e09628, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09628.
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