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Publication type: Article in scientific journal
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Title: Properties of additive-manufactured open porous titanium structures for patient-specific load-bearing implants
Authors: Zumofen, Livia
Kopanska, Katarzyna S.
Bono, Epifania
Kirchheim, Andreas
De Haller, Emmanuel B.
Graf-Hausner, Ursula
et. al: No
DOI: 10.3389/fmech.2021.830126
Published in: Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering
Volume(Issue): 7
Issue: 830126
Issue Date: Feb-2022
Publisher / Ed. Institution: Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN: 2297-3079
Language: English
Subjects: 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Porous titanium; 3D cell culture; Implant; PBF-LB/M; Laser melting; Biomaterial
Subject (DDC): 610.28: Biomedicine, biomedical engineering
670: Manufacturing
Abstract: Additive manufacturing has been well established in many sectors, including the medical industry. For load-bearing bone implants, titanium and its alloys, such as Ti6Al4V, are widely used due to their high strength to weight ratio and osseointegrative properties. However, bone resorption and loosening of implants is related to the significantly higher stiffness of dense Ti6Al4V, leading to stress shielding. With the aging of population, there is an increasing need for orthopedic implants with a high success rate and a long implant life span. Besides that the treatment of non-healing segmental bone defects, where the self repairing properties of bone tissue are not sufficient, is still a challenge. In both fields of application, patient-specific titanium implants combined with functionally graded porosity designed according to locally expected loads unlock new possibilities. Many studies underline the huge potential of the new design freedom to generate open porous structures and more personalized implants with enhanced mechanical properties that also integrate well with surrounding tissues. Integration of functionally graded open porosity into implants allows for the implant to more closely mimic the mechanical properties of human bone and its internal architecture. The results of this work represent the basis for developing complex porous titanium structures with various pore sizes and shapes to tailor structural mechanical properties and biological responses. Therefore, 3D porous structures with various pore sizes and shapes were designed and manufactured in Ti6Al4V using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-LB/M). Based on these structures, the correlation of pore size and shape with cell ingrowth, morphology, metabolic activity, and early markers for bone formation (ALP activity) was investigated in static cell cultures using the osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. Mechanical properties, such as stiffness and compression strength, were investigated with compression testing. The present study concludes that cell morphology, metabolic activity, and ALP activity are widely independent of pore shape and size within the tested range of 400–700 µm pore size. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the evaluated structures were in the range of cortical and trabecular bone. This opens the possibility to design mechanical properties with gradient porosity without decisively affecting biological responses.
Fulltext version: Published version
License (according to publishing contract): CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International
Departement: Life Sciences and Facility Management
School of Engineering
Organisational Unit: Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology (ICBT)
Centre for Product and Process Development (ZPP)
Appears in collections:Publikationen School of Engineering

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