Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.21256/zhaw-3408
Title: Ethoxyquin : a feed additive that poses a risk for aquatic life
Authors : Egloff, Sophia
Pietsch-Schmied, Constanze
Published in : Diseases of aquatic organisms
Volume(Issue) : 131
Issue : 1
Pages : 39
Pages to: 48
Publisher / Ed. Institution : Inter-Research
Issue Date: 2018
License (according to publishing contract) : CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Language : English
Subjects : Algae; Antioxidant; Chlorella; Danio rerio; Daphnia; Embryo; Feed additive; Pesticide; Scenedesmus; Teratogen; Toxicity; Water flea; Zebrafish
Subject (DDC) : 577: Ecology
Abstract: Ethoxyquin (EQ) is an antioxidant that has, to date, been commonly used in feed production. Reports on the detrimental effects of this substance on vertebrates are growing, but effects in aquatic systems have rarely been described. Therefore, the present study was conducted using serial concentrations of EQ ranging from 0.03 to 16.5 mg l-1 to determine effects on 3 types of aquatic organisms. In zebrafish, 5 mg l-1 EQ caused mortality (25%) and a further 62.5% of the embryos showed yolk sac edema as well as deformed bodies or missing eyes. Furthermore, all the investigated EQ concentrations decreased the heart rate of the embryos. The lowest observed effect level was 0.31 mg l-1. In addition to zebrafish, the study also used water fleas Daphnia magna and green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris). These treatments revealed that daphnids are also sensitive to EQ, exhibiting detrimental effects with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 2.65 mg l-1 after 48 h of exposure. The algae appeared to be at least 2 times less sensitive to EQ than fish embryos or daphnids. The results were used to calculate the risk for aquatic life resulting in a maximum tolerable level of 1 µg l-1 for fish embryos and daphnids, with a safety factor of 300. According to current knowledge, this does not exceed environmental concentrations of this substance. However, this study raises further concern about the (until recently) legal maximum tolerable EQ levels in fish feeding and the rather slow pace at which authorization to use EQ as a feed additive for diverse animals in Europe is being suspended.
Departement: Life Sciences and Facility Management
Organisational Unit: Institute of Natural Resource Sciences (IUNR)
Publication type: Article in scientific journal
DOI : 10.21256/zhaw-3408
10.3354/dao03279
ISSN: 0177-5103
1616-1580
URI: https://digitalcollection.zhaw.ch/handle/11475/14502
Appears in Collections:Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management

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