|Title:||Balance, gait, and falls in spinal cord injury|
|Authors :||Wirz, Markus|
van Hedel, Hubertus
|Published in :||Balance, gait, and falls|
|Editors of the parent work:||Day, Brian L.|
Lord, Stephen R.
|Publisher / Ed. Institution :||Elsevier|
|License (according to publishing contract) :||Licence according to publishing contract|
|Series :||Handbook of clinical neurology|
|Type of review:||Editorial review|
|Subject (DDC) :||617: Surgery|
|Abstract:||This chapter covers balance, gait, and falls in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) from a clinical perspective. First, the consequences of an SCI on functioning are explained, including etiology, clinical presentation, classification, and epidemiologic data. Then, the specific aspects of balance disorders, gait disorders, and falls are discussed with respect to motor complete (cSCI) and incomplete (iSCI) SCI. Typically, these activities are affected by impaired afferent and efferent nerves, but not by central nervous processing. Performance of daily life activities in cSCI depends on the ability to control the interaction between the center of mass and the base of support or limits of stability. In iSCI, impaired proprioception and muscle strength are important factors for completing balancing tasks and for walking. Falls are common in patients with SCI. Subsequent sections describe therapy approaches aimed at modifying balance, gait, and the risk for falls by means of therapeutic exercises, assistive devices like robots or functional electric stimulation, and environmental adaptations. The last part covers recent developments and future directions. These encompass interventions for maximizing residual neural function and regeneration of axons, as well as technical solutions like epidural or intraspinal electric stimulation, powered exoskeletons, and brain computer interfaces.|
|Organisational Unit:||Institute of Physiotherapy (IPT)|
|Publication type:||Book part|
|Appears in Collections:||Publikationen Gesundheit|
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