|Title:||Preventable spina bifida and anencephaly in Europe|
|Authors :||Obeid, Rima|
|Published in :||Birth Defects Research|
|Publisher / Ed. Institution :||Wiley|
|License (according to publishing contract) :||Licence according to publishing contract|
|Type of review:||Peer review (publication)|
|Subjects :||Anencephaly; Economic; Folic acid; Fortification; Neural tube defects; Pregnancy; Prevention; Spina bifida; Anencephaly; Dietary Supplements; Ethnic Groups; Europe; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Folic Acid; Food, Fortified; Humans; Live Birth; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Spinal Dysraphism|
|Subject (DDC) :||616.7: Diseases of musculoskeletal system and orthopaedics|
|Abstract:||BACKGROUND: Promotion of voluntary folic acid supplement use among women of reproductive age has been proven to be ineffective in lowering the risk of neural tube defects in Europe. METHODS: Using surveillance data from all births covered by the full member countries of the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT), we estimated the total prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly per 10,000 births between 2000 and 2010. We also estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs among individuals with spina bifida, compared with those without, in Germany for the year 2009. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 7478 documented cases of spina bifida and anencephaly among the 9,161,189 births, with an estimated average combined prevalence of 8.16 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval, 7.98 - 8.35). For the 241 spina bifida-affected live births in 2009 in Germany, the estimated additional lifetime direct medical costs compared with non-spina bifida affected births were €65.5 million. Assuming a 50% reduction in the prevalence if folic acid has been provided to all women before pregnancy, 293 spina bifida cases could have been prevented in Germany in 2009. The estimated lifetime direct medical cost saving for the live births in 2009 was €32.9 million assuming a 50% reduction, or €26.1 million assuming a 40% risk reduction. CONCLUSION: Europe has an epidemic of spina bifida and anencephaly compared with countries with mandatory folic acid fortification policy. Primary prevention through mandatory folic acid fortification would considerably reduce the number of affected pregnancies, and associated additional costs.|
|Departement:||School of Management and Law|
|Organisational Unit:||Winterthur Institute of Health Economics (WIG)|
|Publication type:||Article in scientific journal|
|Appears in Collections:||Publikationen School of Management and Law|
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